ABOUT:

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with symptoms such as a cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty breathing. You can protect yourself by washing your hands frequently, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding close contact (1 meter or 3 feet) with people who are unwell.

HOW IT SPREADS:

Coronavirus disease spreads primarily through contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. It also spreads when a person touches a surface or object that has the virus on it, then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth.

about

SYMPTOMS

People may be sick with the virus for 1 to 14 days before developing symptoms. The most common symptoms of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing special treatment.

More rarely, the disease can be serious and even fatal. Older people, and people with other medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease), may be more vulnerable to becoming severely ill.

People may experience -

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    Cough
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    Fever
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    Tiredness
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    Difficulty breathing (severe cases)
about

Prevention Coronavirus

There’s currently no vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease (COVID-19). You can protect yourself and help prevent spreading the virus to others if you -


Do:

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    Wash Your Hands For 20sec

    Wash your hands regularly for 20 seconds, with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub.

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    Cover Nose and Mouth When Sneezing

    Cover your nose and mouth with a disposable tissue or flexed elbow when you cough or sneeze.

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    Avoid close contact

    Avoid close contact (1 meter or 3 feet) with people who are unwell.

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    Stay home and self-isolate

    Stay home and self-isolate from others in the household if you feel unwell.


DON'T:

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    Don't touch your eyes, nose, or mouth

    Touch your eyes, nose, or mouth if your hands are not clean

TREATMENTS

There is no specific medicine to prevent or treat coronavirus disease (COVID-19). People may need supportive care to help them breathe.

SELF CARE:

If you have mild symptoms, stay at home until you’ve recovered. You can relieve your symptoms if you -:

  • Rest and sleep
  • Keep warm
  • Drink plenty of liquids
  • Use a room humidifier or take a hot shower to help ease a sore throat and cough

MEDICAL TREATMENTS

If you develop a fever, cough, and have difficulty breathing, promptly seek medical care. Call in advance and tell your health provider of any recent travel or recent contact with travelers.

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    Old People and People with Medical Issues

    COVID-19 proves fatal mostly in old and people with underlying medical issues (both present and past). This guide outlines extra precautions to be taken.

    People above 70 years of age and people with medical issues either currently or previously are at the most risk from COVID-19. This data shows the elderly are at a much greater risk than young people.

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    Age Group Mortality Rate %/th>
    80 + 14.8 %
    70 - 79 8 %
    50 - 59 1.3%
    40 - < 0.5 %

    With the available data there are no reported deaths of children under 10 years of age, and children seem to have a very low mortality rate from COVID-19.

    The people with preexisting medical conditions tell a similar story. People with underlying medical conditions are at a greater risk than people without any predisposed medical condition.


    Medical Condition Mortality Rate %/th>
    Cardiovascular Disease 10.5 %
    Diabetes 7.3 %
    Chronic Respiratory Disease 6.3 %
    Hypertension 6.0 %
    Cancer 5.6 %
    No Health Condition 0.9 %

    This all indicates that if you belong to any of the above said categories you are at High Risk from COVID-19. You will need to take special precautions.

    Extra Precautions for People at Higher Risk

    The above said people in the high risk category should follow these extra precautions to the ones specified in the guide.

    1. Stock up on groceries and home supplies to avoid grocery visits and/or orders.
    2. Take extra care to maintain safe distance (1 metre ideally) from others
    3. When out in public on an absolutely necessary errand, limit contact and wash your hands often.
    4. Avoid crowds as much as possible.
    5. Avoid all non essential intercity travels.

    Supplies

    1. Contact your healthcare provider (doctor/clinic/hospital) to ask about obtaining extra necessary medications in case of an outbreak - you might need to stay indoors for a prolonged period of time.
    2. Over the counter supplies (tissues etc) and medicines could be procured and kept ready in case you fall sick and need basic home treatment. Most people will be able to recover at home.
    3. Have enough household items on groceries on hand to avoid unnecessary outside contact.

    If COVID-19 is spreading in your area

    Take extra measures to ensure safe distance from others.

    1. Stay at home as much as possible.
    2. Consider ways of getting supplies delivered to your home through family, social or commercial networks.
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    Myths and Fake News

    Source - World Health Organization

    There are a lot of myths and fake news that are both dangerous to yourselves and others circulating on Social Media. Never share any information that you have not verified yourself or that isn't from official sources, it will do more harm than good. Here we have compiled a list of common myths and fake news about COVID-19. We have also linked the source of the article which proves it.

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    Does Drinking water and keeping your throat moist kills COVID-19 ?

    No, There have been messages circulating on Social media stating that drinking (preferably hot) water and keeping your throat moist can help prevent an infection. The messages also cite different health organizations. This is a myth. There is no real evidence suggesting that drinking (hot or cold) water can help prevent a Coronavirus Infection.


    Does COVID-19 spread through Air?

    No, COVID-19 is not airborne, meaning it does not spread through Air. It spreads through contact with droplets containing the virus from the nose and mouths of people who are infected. Even though the virus is not airborne there is still considerable risk as the virus is highly contagious. Follow the instructions given below to take necessary precautions.


    Does taking a hot bath prevent coronavirus disease?

    No, Taking a hot bath will not prevent you from catching COVID-19. Your normal body temperature remains around 36.5°C to 37°C, regardless of the temperature of your bath or shower. Actually, taking a hot bath with extremely hot water can be harmful, as it can burn you. The best way to protect yourself against COVID-19 is by frequently cleaning your hands. By doing this you eliminate viruses that may be on your hands and avoid infection that could occur by then touching your eyes, mouth, and nose.


    Can cold weather and snow kill coronavirus?

    No, There is no reason to believe that cold weather can kill the new coronavirus or other diseases. The normal human body temperature remains around 36.5°C to 37°C, regardless of the external temperature or weather. The most effective way to protect yourself against the new coronavirus is by frequently cleaning your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or washing them with soap and water.


    Can mosquito bites transmit this disease?

    No, To date there has been no information nor evidence to suggest that the new coronavirus could be transmitted by mosquitoes. The new coronavirus is a respiratory virus which spreads primarily through droplets generated when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose. To protect yourself, clean your hands frequently with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Also, avoid close contact with anyone who is coughing and sneezing.


    Are hand dryers effective in killing the new coronavirus?

    No, Hand dryers are not effective in killing the 2019-nCoV. To protect yourself against the new coronavirus, you should frequently clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Once your hands are cleaned, you should dry them thoroughly by using paper towels or a warm air dryer.


    Can an ultraviolet disinfection lamp kill the new coronavirus?

    No, UV lamps should not be used to sterilize hands or other areas of skin as UV radiation can cause skin irritation.


    How effective are thermal scanners in detecting people infected with the new coronavirus?

    Thermal scanners are effective in detecting people who have developed a fever (i.e. have a higher than normal body temperature) because of infection with the new coronavirus. However, they cannot detect people who are infected but are not yet sick with fever. This is because it takes between 2 and 10 days before people who are infected become sick and develop a fever.


    Can spraying alcohol or chlorine all over your body kill the new coronavirus?

    No, Spraying alcohol or chlorine all over your body will not kill viruses that have already entered your body. Spraying such substances can be harmful to clothes or mucous membranes (i.e. eyes, mouth). Be aware that both alcohol and chlorine can be useful to disinfect surfaces, but they need to be used under appropriate recommendations.


    Do vaccines against pneumonia protect you against the new coronavirus?

    No, Vaccines against pneumonia, such as pneumococcal vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine, do not provide protection against the new coronavirus. The virus is so new and different that it needs its own vaccine. Researchers are trying to develop a vaccine against 2019-nCoV, and WHO is supporting their efforts. Although these vaccines are not effective against 2019-nCoV, vaccination against respiratory illnesses is highly recommended to protect your health.


    Can regularly rinsing your nose with saline help prevent infection with the new coronavirus?

    No, There is no evidence that regularly rinsing the nose with saline has protected people from infection with the new coronavirus. There is some limited evidence that regularly rinsing your nose with saline can help people recover more quickly from the common cold. However, regularly rinsing the nose has not been shown to prevent respiratory infections.


    Can eating garlic help prevent infection with the new coronavirus?

    Garlic is a healthy food that may have some antimicrobial properties. However, there is no evidence from the current outbreak that eating garlic has protected people from the new coronavirus.


    Does the new coronavirus affect older people, or are younger people also susceptible?

    People of all ages can be infected by the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Older people, and people with pre-existing medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease) appear to be more vulnerable to becoming severely ill with the virus. ​WHO advises people of all ages to take steps to protect themselves from the virus, for example by following good hand hygiene and good respiratory hygiene.


    Are antibiotics effective in preventing and treating the new coronavirus?

    No, antibiotics do not work against viruses, only bacteria. ​The new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a virus and, therefore, antibiotics should not be used as a means of prevention or treatment. However, if you are hospitalized for the 2019-nCoV, you may receive antibiotics because bacterial co-infection is possible.


    Are there any specific medicines to prevent or treat the new coronavirus?

    To date, there is no specific medicine recommended to prevent or treat the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). ​However, those infected with the virus should receive appropriate care to relieve and treat symptoms, and those with severe illness should receive optimized supportive care. Some specific treatments are under investigation, and will be tested through clinical trials. WHO is helping to accelerate research and development efforts with a range or partners.

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    Guidelines for Home Quarantine

    Home Quarantine Guidelines of COVID-19 are given below.

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    Introduction

    1. Persons and household members should be educated about personal hygiene, basic IPC measures and how to care for the member of the family suspected of having COVID-19 disease as safely as possible to prevent the infection from spreading to household contacts.
    2. The persons and the family should be provided with ongoing support and education, and monitoring should continue for the duration of home care.

    Recommendations

    Persons and families should adhere to the following recommendations:-

    1. Place the person in a well-ventilated single room (i.e . with open windows and an open door)
    2. Limit the movement of the person in the house and minimize shared space. Ensure that shared spaces (e.g., kitchen, bathroom) are well ventilated (e.g., keep windows open).
    3. Household members should stay in a different room or, if that is not possible. maintain a distance of at least 1 mt from the ill person.
    4. Limit the number of caregivers, ideally, assign one person who is in good health and has no underlying chronic or immunocompromised conditions. Visitors should not be allowed until the person has completely recovered and has no signs and symptoms.
    5. Perform hand hygiene after any type of contact with a person or their immediate environment. Hand hygiene should also be performed before and after preparing food, before eating, after using the toilets and whenever hands look dirty. If hands are not visibly dirty. an alcohol-based hand rub can be used For visibly dirty hands, use soap and water.
    6. When washing hands with soap and water, it is preferable to use disposable paper towels to dry hands. If these are not available. use clean cloth rowels and replace them when they become wet. Disposable paper towels should be disposed of in closed bins only.
    7. To contain respiratory secretions, a medical mask should be provided to the person and worn as much as possible. Materials used to cover the mouth and nose should be discarded or cleaned appropriately after use (e.g., wash handkerchiefs using regular soap or detergent and water).
    8. Caregivers should wear a tightly fitted medical mask that covers their mouth and nose when in the same room as the person. Masks should not be touched or handled during use If the mask gets wet or dirty from secretions, it must be replaced immediately with a new clean, dry mask. Remove the mask using the appropriate technique — that is, do not touch the front, but instead untie it Discard the mask immediately after use and perform hand hygiene.
    9. Avoid direct contact with body fluids, particularly oral or respiratory secretions, and stool. Use disposable gloves and a mask when providing oral or respiratory care and when handling stool, urine. and other waste. Perform hand hygiene before and after removing gloves and mask.
    10. Do not reuse masks or gloves
    11. Use dedicated linen and eating utensils for the person; these items should be cleaned with soap and water after use and may be re-used instead of being discarded. They should be washed at 60-90°C with common household detergent, and dry thoroughly. Place contaminated linen into a laundry bag.
    12. Clean and disinfect daily surfaces that are frequently touched in the room where the person is being cared for, such as bedside tables. bed frames and other bedroom furniture. Regular household soap or detergent should be used first for cleaning, and then, after rinsing, regular household disinfectant containing 0.5% sodium hypochlorite ( i.e., equivalent to 5000 pm or 1 part bleach 5 to 9 parts water) should be applied.
    13. Clean and disinfect bathroom and toilet surfaces at least once daily. Regular household soap or detergent should be used first for cleaning. and then, after rinsing, regular household disinfectant containing 0.5% to 1% sodium hypochlorite should be applied.
    14. Avoid other types of exposure to contaminated items from the person's immediate environment (e.g. do not share toothbrushes, cigarettes. eating utensils, dishes, drinks, towels, washcloths or bed linen).
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ACTIONS TO TAKE WHEN

    I am Infected

    Source :- Center for Disease Control (CDC)

    If you are sick with COVID-19 or suspect you are infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, follow the steps below to help prevent the disease from spreading to people in your home and community.

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    Stay home except to get medical care
    1. Stay home - People who are mildly ill with COVID-19 are able to isolate at home during their illness. You should restrict activities outside your home, except for getting medical care.
    2. Avoid public areas - Do not go to work, school, or public areas.
    3. Avoid public transportation - Avoid using public transportation, ride-sharing, or taxis.

    Separate yourself from other people and animals in your home
    1. Stay away from others - As much as possible, you should stay in a specific room and away from other people in your home. Also, you should use a separate bathroom, if available.
    2. Limit contact with pets & animals - You should restrict contact with pets and other animals while you are sick with COVID-19, just like you would around other people. Although there have not been reports of pets or other animals becoming sick with COVID-19, it is still recommended that people sick with COVID-19 limit contact with animals until more information is known about the virus.
    3. When possible, have another member of your household care for your animals while you are sick. If you are sick with COVID-19, avoid contact with your pet, including petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food. If you must care for your pet or be around animals while you are sick, wash your hands before and after you interact with pets and wear a facemask.

    Call ahead before visiting your doctor

    If you have a medical appointment, call the healthcare provider and tell them that you have or may have COVID-19. This will help the healthcare provider’s office take steps to keep other people from getting infected or exposed.


    Wear a facemask if you are sick
    1. If you are sick - You should wear a facemask when you are around other people (e.g., sharing a room or vehicle) or pets and before you enter a healthcare provider’s office.
    2. If you are caring for others - If the person who is sick is not able to wear a facemask (for example, because it causes trouble breathing), then people who live with the person who is sick should not stay in the same room with them, or they should wear a facemask if they enter a room with the person who is sick.

    Cover your coughs and sneezes
    1. Cover - Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze.
    2. Dispose - Throw used tissues in a lined trash can.
    3. Wash hands - Immediately wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or, if soap and water are not available, clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.

    Clean your hands often
    1. Wash hands - Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing; going to the bathroom; and before eating or preparing food.
    2. Hand sanitizer - If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol, covering all surfaces of your hands and rubbing them together until they feel dry.
    3. Soap and water - Soap and water are the best option if hands are visibly dirty.
    4. Avoid touching - Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.

    Avoid sharing personal household items
    1. Do not share - You should not share dishes, drinking glasses, cups, eating utensils, towels, or bedding with other people or pets in your home.
    2. Wash thoroughly after use - After using these items, they should be washed thoroughly with soap and water.

    Clean all “high-touch” surfaces everyday
    1. Clean and disinfect - Practice routine cleaning of high touch surfaces. High touch surfaces include counters, tabletops, doorknobs, bathroom fixtures, toilets, phones, keyboards, tablets, and bedside tables.
    2. Disinfect areas with bodily fluids - Also, clean any surfaces that may have blood, stool, or body fluids on them.
    3. Household cleaners - Use a household cleaning spray or wipe, according to the label instructions. Labels contain instructions for safe and effective use of the cleaning product including precautions you should take when applying the product, such as wearing gloves and making sure you have good ventilation during use of the product.

    Monitor your symptoms
    1. Seek medical attention - Seek prompt medical attention if your illness is worsening (e.g., difficulty breathing).
    2. Call your doctor - Before seeking care, call your healthcare provider and tell them that you have, or are being evaluated for, COVID-19.
    3. Wear a facemask when sick - Put on a facemask before you enter the facility. These steps will help the healthcare provider’s office to keep other people in the office or waiting room from getting infected or exposed.
    4. Alert health department - Ask your healthcare provider to call the local or state health department. Persons who are placed under active monitoring or facilitated self-monitoring should follow instructions provided by their local health department or occupational health professionals, as appropriate.

    Discontinuing home isolation
    1. Stay at home until instructed to leave - Patients with confirmed COVID-19 should remain under home isolation precautions until the risk of secondary transmission to others is thought to be low.
    2. Talk to your healthcare provider - The decision to discontinue home isolation precautions should be made on a case-by-case basis, in consultation with healthcare providers and state and local health departments.

    Someone I know is Infected

    Source:- Center for Disease Control

    Household members, intimate partners, and caregivers in a non healthcare setting may have close contact with a person with symptomatic, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or a person under investigation. Close contacts should monitor their health; they should call their healthcare provider right away if they develop symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 (e.g., fever, cough, shortness of breath)

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    Close contacts should also follow these recommendations
    1. Make sure that you understand and can help the patient follow their healthcare provider’s instructions for medication(s) and care. You should help the patient with basic needs in the home and provide support for getting groceries, prescriptions, and other personal needs.
    2. Monitor the patient’s symptoms. If the patient is getting sicker, call his or her healthcare provider and tell them that the patient has laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. This will help the healthcare provider’s office take steps to keep other people in the office or waiting room from getting infected.
    3. Ask the healthcare provider to call the local or state health department for additional guidance. If the patient has a medical emergency and you need to call 1133, notify the dispatch personnel that the patient has, or is being evaluated for COVID-19.
    4. Household members should stay in another room or be separated from the patient as much as possible. Household members should use a separate bedroom and bathroom, if available.
    5. Prohibit visitors who do not have an essential need to be in the home.
    6. Household members should care for any pets in the home. Do not handle pets or other animals while sick.
    7. Make sure that shared spaces in the home have good airflow, such as by an air conditioner or an opened window, weather permitting.
    8. Perform hand hygiene frequently. Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains 60 to 95% alcohol, covering all surfaces of your hands and rubbing them together until they feel dry. Soap and water should be used preferentially if hands are visibly dirty.
    9. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
    10. The patient should wear a facemask when you are around other people. If the patient is not able to wear a facemask (for example, because it causes trouble breathing), you, as the caregiver, should wear a mask when you are in the same room as the patient.
    11. Wear a disposable facemask and gloves when you touch or have contact with the patient’s blood, stool, or body fluids, such as saliva, sputum, nasal mucus, vomit, urine.
    12. - Throw out disposable face masks and gloves after using them. Do not reuse.

      - When removing personal protective equipment, first remove and dispose of gloves. Then, immediately clean your hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Next, remove and dispose of facemask, and immediately clean your hands again with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    13. Avoid sharing household items with the patient. You should not share dishes, drinking glasses, cups, eating utensils, towels, bedding, or other items. After the patient uses these items, you should wash them thoroughly.
    14. Clean all “high-touch” surfaces, such as counters, tabletops, doorknobs, bathroom fixtures, toilets, phones, keyboards, tablets, and bedside tables, every day. Also, clean any surfaces that may have blood, stool, or body fluids on them.
    15. - Use a household cleaning spray or wipe, according to the label instructions. Labels contain instructions for safe and effective use of the cleaning product including precautions you should take when applying the product, such as wearing gloves and making sure you have good ventilation during use of the product.

    16. Wash laundry thoroughly.
    17. - Immediately remove and wash clothes or bedding that have blood, stool, or body fluids on them.

      - Wear disposable gloves while handling soiled items and keep soiled items away from your body. Clean your hands (with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer) immediately after removing your gloves.

      - Read and follow directions on labels of laundry or clothing items and detergent. In general, using a normal laundry detergent according to washing machine instructions and dry thoroughly using the warmest temperatures recommended on the clothing label.

    18. Place all used disposable gloves, facemasks, and other contaminated items in a lined container before disposing of them with other household waste. Clean your hands (with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer) immediately after handling these items. Soap and water should be used preferentially if hands are visibly dirty.
    19. Discuss any additional questions with your state or local health department or healthcare provider. Check available hours when contacting your local health department.

    Home Isolation

    Home isolation measures for people with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 who do not need to be hospitalized and people who were hospitalized and then determined to be medically stable to go home. You should follow the prevention steps below until a healthcare provider or local or state health department says you can return to your normal activities.

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    1. Well ventilated non AC room
    2. Windows kept open during day time
    3. Room should have an attached bathroom or separate bathroom for the suspected patient.
    4. Do not share utensils, linen or other items.
    5. Practice frequent handwashing with soap and water especially after toilet or contact with body fluids.
    6. Follow personal hygiene
    7. Follow respiratory hygiene
    8. - Cover mouth and nose with mask or tissue while coughing or sneezing

      - If mask or tissue is not available cough or sneeze to your flexed elbow followed by hand hygiene

    9. Three buckets for waste collection
    10. - soiled linen, clothes, towel – disinfect with bleach, wash and sun dry before next use

      - soiled mask, tissues, pad – for incineration

      - for bio medical waste - for burial

    11. Room should be mopped with bleach solution
    12. Bleach solution can be used to clean furniture, wash basin, toilet seats etc
    13. Alcohol based hand rub at the room entrance to be used by caregiver
    14. No visitors should be allowed
    15. Should not attend meetings, social gatherings, parties etc
    16. Avoid public transport